I let the law enforcement class go on break briefly this morning so that I could be there to witness the end of this semester’s Capture The Flag competition.  In the tradition I began last year, playing “Eye of the Tiger” during the last moments of the competition, Chris loaded up “The Final Countdown”.  This is a tradition we enjoy, but it drives most of the participants crazy.

The final scores reflect all of the flags captured by the teams.  Everyone managed to submit theirs on time, just before the 9:30 deadline.  Here are the scores:

  1. Team Firewall – 30
  2. Team Sniffer – 23
  3. Team Wireshark – 20
  4. Team Burp Suite – 15
  5. Team Nmap – 9
  6. Team Tracker – 8

Automated sniffing and resubmission of flags was performed successfully by many teams this semester, and it made for an interesting dynamic in the post-game discussion and wrap-up.  Team Sniffer disclosed that 8 of their flags were captured off the wire and resubmitted.  Other teams also had success with stealing others’ flags in the same way.  This also had an unforeseen circumstance: often a team would sniff and submit a flag without knowing where it came from in the game.  Those teams would then spend time actually breaking into a system to capture a flag, only to find out it was one they already had submitted.

Congratulations to Team Firewall for an outstanding CTF performance, and I am looking forward to examining some of the tools and scripts the teams wrote for this competition.

 

Everyone still has the itus from the food and festivities yesterday, so things are moving a little bit slow in the lab today.  There was only one pen-tester-in-training in there when I just checked, but it was obvious that others had been through, judging from the food wrappers in the garbage.  This is how hackers in the deep south roll on Sundays: It’s a day of rest, but you still have to scratch that itch to hack.

The lone participant was a member of Team Sniffer, and assured me that they have every expectation and plan to catch up with Team Firewall.  There’s a lot of prime late-night hacking time between now and the end of CTF on Tuesday morning, so I don’t think it’s a bluff on Sniffer’s part.

The scores, as of 2:00PM on Sunday:

  1. Team Firewall – 27
  2. Team Sniffer – 11
  3. Team Wireshark – 3
  4. Team Burp Suite – 1
  5. Team Nmap – 0
  6. Team Tracker – 0

For a moment, I thought I needed to get Fyodor to give Team Nmap a call to get them into action (would they know who he is? :) ), but I did notice that Team Nmap has reserved a computer for running processes persistently.  Maybe they’re sitting on their flags for the moment.

 

While everyone else is out partaking in food and fun at MSU’s Super Bulldog Weekend, Old Main Music Festival, and Cotton District Arts Festival this weekend, the true alpha-security-nerds are living it up in the lab.  On my way over to the music festival, I have stopped by the lab to see how the teams are doing.  A couple of guys (from two different teams) were in at the moment, hacking away.

One participant informed me as soon as I arrived that one of the targets was down.  I logged in and took a look: the VM was completely off.  New rule: no “shutdown -h now” :)

The scores as of approximately 7:00PM:

  1. Team Firewall – 27
  2. Team Sniffer – 6
  3. Team Wireshark – 3
  4. Team Burp Suite – 1
  5. Team Nmap – 0
  6. Team Tracker -0

Team Sniffer has bumped their score up significantly, and it’s likely that they are sitting on some un-submitted flags.

I’ll be back at some point tomorrow to post a Sunday update.  For now, it’s off to the Old Main Music Festival for me.

 

The meta-game of sniffing and counter-sniffing on our CTF normally makes teams paranoid about submitting flags early in the game.  This paranoia even outweighs the main benefit of submitting early: ties are broken by the time of last submission.  At this point in the game scores are normally low.

This is not a normal instance of CTF, though.  One team, Team Firewall has embraced the risks and run up their score early.  As of this morning at 8:15 AM, the scores are as follows:

  1. Team Firewall – 24 points
  2. Team Wireshark – 3 points
  3. Team Sniffer – 1
  4. Team Burp Suite – 1
  5. Team Nmap – 0
  6. Team Tracker – 0

This year, initial team names were chosen by the security class’ professor, Dr. Ray Vaughn.  The names don’t reflect any association with the listed open-source projects (though if the members want to work out endorsement deals, they are welcome to!).

In true nerd fashion, we’ll see how much activity we have in CTF over the weekend with the university’s Super Bulldog Weekend festivities going on.

 

Today, immediately after my rules lecture to the 9:30AM (Central) information security class, the Spring 2010 iteration of Capture the Flag here at Mississippi State University will begin.  While I have handed off much of the responsibility for running CTF to Chris Vance, our Security Lab Administrator, I will still be covering the event on this blog, much like I did last year.

The format is the same as last semester: 6 teams, trying to capture as many “flags” (10-digit hexadecimal strings. For example: 489066dd35) as possible.  They submit these flags to a scoring server that also happens to be in the target network.  There is always a very interesting meta-game between the teams, as they try to figure out how to submit their flags securely.

Last semester was the first CTF to run for multiple days, and I believe it was a huge success.  We’re continuing this time format, and the current CTF will run until 9:30 AM on Tuesday.  I will update this site with scores and a bit of commentary (though I won’t be spending as much time in the lab this time as I did last semester).

Here’s a list of posts from last semester’s CTF:

 

I went to download the Opera Mini web browser on my iPod Touch (quick review: nice, fast!) and it made me agree to the new iTunes/App Store terms of service.  Times like this make me glad I don’t have a credit card associated with the iTunes account at the moment:

I’d love to see some statistics on how far people make it before giving up.

 

The guys that I brought together here at Mississippi State to serve as a Red Team for University of Alaska Fairbanks’ CCDC had a great time Saturday.  This CCDC was a “practice” run for two Alaskan teams and two Hawaiian teams, and I believe we gave them a good taste of what they’d likely face in regional and national CCDCs if they decide to run it again for-real next year and send a team to regionals (which I hope they do!).

I gathered up a team of skilled students here that had performed well in past CTF events we’ve held here at MSU, or otherwise shown some aptitude (such as the guy who developed our SCADA radio attacks).  With a good team in place, we prepared our attack with the following goals in mind:

  • Fair distribution of attacks – If we were able to compromise a team’s system, once we were in, we tried to run the same kind of attack against all of the other teams.  If a team escaped the evil treatment we gave another team, it was because they had defended themselves against it, and not due to arbitrary choices of who we pick on.
  • Annoyance, not destruction - Once we were in, we were careful to not do anything that the teams could not recover from.  No “rm -rf” or dropping tables.
  • Increasing levels of noise – Early in the game, our goal was to get in and subvert things quietly.  As the game progressed, I instructed my Red Team to get increasingly “loud” and annoying, to see at what point the teams realized there was a compromise, and observe how they would react.

I won’t go into too much detail about the scenario, in case they want to re-use parts of it, but I can give a good summary of things from the Red Team perspective without getting into spoilers.  On our end, we set up shop in the MSU NFTC’s forensics lab (our security lab is isolated from the public Internet), and connected to the CCDC network remotely using the VMWare vSphere client.  There, the organizers had set the red team up with a number of Backtrack 4 and Windows XP virtual machines.

The defending teams were given a 30 minute grace period, during which we were only allowed to perform recon.  We took the time to scan the network, and get Metasploit and other tools ready to go.  I quickly knocked together a phishing site based off the web applications the teams had to maintain.

Within the first five minutes of our attack, members of the Red Team had compromised all four teams’ DNS servers and installed back-door software that maintained access for most of the competition.  This allowed us to point the teams’ domain for web access (www.) to the phishing site I created and set up before the attack.  This site logged usernames and passwords for all teams throughout the competition, and served as a nice central place to deface and taunt them (with the phished account list) once we decided to get noisy.

While we waited for the central DNS server to update its cache for the teams’ web servers, I managed to break their web apps, so that if they did manage to point them back to the right location, they’d still have some work to do.  They were running a web hosting business that allowed new clients to select the subdomain they wanted to host their site.  I registered an account on the first team’s site and requested the “www.” subdomain.  This instantly replaced their web app with an Apache test page.  Delighted, I moved on and broke the others in the same way.  Only one team’s app survived this, but only because they had broken account creation and login (likely, by trying to secure Apache or Django’s config).

From this point on, we played cat-and-mouse with the teams on their other systems, but they never resumed business operations.  One thing we discussed with them in our post-game wrap-up was a sense of priority.  I’m not sure how it would reflect in the scoring of a regional or national CCDC, but at least in the real world, the focus should have been on getting their web sites back up and operational so that business could continue.  Everything else could work, but if you can’t sign up new clients or provide service, you’re dead in the water.  Most of the other stuff we did (compromising the mail server to send resignation letters and rude emails to the CCDC organizers on behalf of the teams, fighting for control/chatting with team members on their workstations) were distractions to keep them from kicking us out of the systems that really mattered.

Overall, though, the teams did a good job of not panicking in a bad-and-rapidly-deteriorating situation.  By the end, a couple of the teams had managed to kick us out of their DNS servers and given some more time, would have been able to restore operations.  They all seemed to be good sports about it too :)

As for my Red Team, I’m very proud.  They held it down, but kept things fair and didn’t make things hopeless for the defenders.  They quickly executed our planned attacks and kept their eyes on the goal: disrupting business, not just owning boxes.

 

I’ve been busy this week teaching part of the intro series of courses we have at the National Forensics Training Center, but I still wanted to post a quick update.  I figured I’d share a few interesting things I read this week, and talk a bit about some extracurricular activities going on in our lab tommorow.

For a couple of weeks now, I’ve been using Instapaper to mark articles and sites to “Read Later”.  The benefit of Instapaper is, with the integration and sync’ing between all the different computers I use and (crucial) my iPod Touch, I actually wind up reading things that I intend to read later, instead of them just getting bookmarked and forgotten.  While I’m on WiFi I can sync them all up to the iPod and read them anywhere, offline, where I don’t have the distractions of grabbing new emails and messages.

Some things I star’d and enjoyed recently:

  • Should I Learn Assembly Language – HD Moore tackles the question of whether or not penetration testers have a need to learn assembly language.  Spoiler: The answer is, essentially: you can get away with not knowing it if you just use the shellcode in Metasploit, but it’s a must if use public-sourced exploits or just want to understand how the shellcode works (which you should).
  • Network Time Protocol (NTP) Fun – Cool little writeup over at the carnal0wnage blog about a new module in Metasploit that performs some information gathering over NTP.
  • Clueless FUD Article… – In which Steve Manzuik points out that there is a lot more information sharing going on behind the scenes in infosec than you might be aware of (or at least more than the author of a specific DarkReading article is aware of)

Tomorrow afternoon, a group of guys (who have historically done well in past CTF events here at the university) and I will be acting as the red team for a cyber-defense exercise being hosted by the University of Alaska Fairbanks.  They have a nice VMWare setup in Fairbanks that all of the teams will be remoting into, and we’re really looking forward to giving the participating universities a hard time.  If you happen to be one of the readers that local enough to Mississippi State University to drop by for a visit, feel free to come by the forensics lab in Butler Hall tomorrow between 1:30 and 7:30 PM to see how things are going.

 

Today was officially my first day at my new job.  I’ve taken a full-time position at Mississippi State University’s National Forensics Training Center.  The NFTC is a really great program we have in the Computer Science & Engineering department, that has a handful of primary tasks:

  • Training law enforcement agents to respond to and investigate crimes involving digital evidence
  • Giving wounded veterans digital forensic training, to give them a useful skill set and experience as they transition to other roles and jobs
  • Providing equipment for “Mini-Labs” throughout the state of Mississippi to distribute the case-load of digital forensic investigation here

The training provided by the NFTC is free for the students that qualify for it.

Now that I am working at the NFTC, I will be wearing many hats:

  • I will be updating the curriculum for classes we are currently teaching, and developing material for new classes (I am especially excited about adding a network forensics course later this year)
  • I will be teaching the courses that we have developed to law enforcement and veterans, in our teaching lab at MSU, and wherever else we travel to teach our classes
  • I will be working to build up a research focus at the NFTC, using our time between classes to develop and publish new digital forensic techniques and tools, free for use by our students and the digital forensics community as a whole.

I’m very excited about bringing my background with security, vulnerability assessment, and penetration testing to the forensics field in this job, and I’m looking forward to publishing more of our efforts in this area.  I will be blogging about forensics more often here, although it will always have a slant that will be interesting to security professionals.  We’ll also be unveiling a new NFTC website soon that will have better information about upcoming classes, and forensics news, whitepapers, and tools that will be of use to those outside of the community of our students too.

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